Satellites capture moment when Japanese submarine volcano Fukutoku-Okanoba erupts

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NASA shared incredible satellite images of the Japanese submarine volcano Fukutok-Okanoba, shooting a plume of gas and vapor 80 feet below the surface and up to the lower limit of the stratosphere.

The images were captured by the Japanese geostationary satellite Himawari 8 and NASA’s sensor on Landsat 8 moments after the August 13 eruption.

Volcanic ash rose to 54,000 feet above sea level during the explosion and continued to rise a few days after the initial eruption.

The Japanese Coast Guard said “the eruption was so large that it could not be seen nearby,” and called for caution on ships sailing and flying planes nearby.

Two days after the event and when the smoke cleared, the Coast Guard sighted a new island formed from the eruption, which was named Niijima, or “new island.”

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NASA shared incredible satellite images of the Japanese submarine volcano, Fukutok-Okanoba, shooting a plume of gas 80 feet below the surface and up to the lower limit of the stratosphere. The images were captured by the Japanese geostationary satellite Himawari 8 and NASA’s sensor on Landsat 8 moments after the August 13 eruption.

The Japanese Coast Guard have observed patches of milky blue water in the Pacific Ocean, about three miles north of South Iwo Jima Island, over the past decade.

This is from the underwater volcano that erupted below the surface, but on August 13 the plume of smoke broke out and traveled 10 miles across the sky.

Andrew Tupper, meteorologist at Natural Hazards Consulting and aviation hazard specialist, said in a statement: “What was remarkable about this eruption is that it happened directly from an underwater event to an eruption cloud reaching the lower limit of the stratosphere.

“It’s not very common for this type of volcano. We normally see lower level plumes from underwater eruptions.

Volcanic ash rose to 54,000 feet above sea level during the explosion and continued to rise a few days after the initial eruption

Volcanic ash rose to 54,000 feet above sea level during the explosion and continued to rise a few days after the initial eruption

The Japanese Coast Guard have observed patches of milky blue water in the Pacific Ocean, about three miles north of South Iwo Jima Island, over the past decade.

The Japanese Coast Guard have observed patches of milky blue water in the Pacific Ocean, about three miles north of South Iwo Jima Island, over the past decade.

Fukutok-Okanoba has also left its mark on the sea surface, creating a new island outline in the form of parentheses of the volcano’s caldera.

The volcano created ephemeral ash and pumice islands in the past that eroded soon after they formed, and NASA says it’s unclear how long the new formation will last.

Fukutoku-Okanoba’s past additions to the Pacific seascape, however, have only been proven temporarily, with the islands that first appeared in 1904, 1914 and 1986 having since all been destroyed by erosion.

The survival of Niijima will depend very much on the duration of the eruption and, by extension, on the type of rocks with which the small landmass ends up being covered.

The appearance of new islands in the region is not without precedent.

This is from the underwater volcano that erupted below the surface, but on August 13 the plume of smoke broke out and traveled 10 miles across the sky.

This is from the underwater volcano that erupted below the surface, but on August 13 the plume of smoke broke out and traveled 10 miles across the sky.

Fukutok-Okanoba has also left its mark on the sea surface, creating a new island outline in the form of parentheses of the volcano's caldera.  The volcano created ephemeral ash and pumice islands in the past that eroded soon after they formed, and NASA says it's not clear how long the new formation will last.

Fukutok-Okanoba has also left its mark on the sea surface, creating a new island outline in the form of parentheses of the volcano’s caldera. The volcano created ephemeral ash and pumice islands in the past that eroded soon after they formed, and NASA says it’s not clear how long the new formation will last.

Two days after the event and when the smoke cleared, the Coast Guard sighted a new island formed from the eruption, which was named Niijima, or

Two days after the event and when the smoke cleared, the Coast Guard sighted a new island formed from the eruption, which was named Niijima, or “new island.”

The appearance of new islands in the region is not unprecedented - in 2013, for example, an eruption formed a new island (bottom left) which eventually merged with neighboring Nishinoshima (top left) to form a mass that temporarily resembled Snoopy from Peanuts (right)

The appearance of new islands in the region is not unprecedented – in 2013, for example, an eruption formed a new island (bottom left) which eventually merged with neighboring Nishinoshima (top left) to form a mass that temporarily resembled Snoopy from Peanuts (right)

In 2013, for example, an eruption formed a new island that eventually merged with neighboring Nishinoshima to form a mass that temporarily resembled Snoopy from Peanuts.

“The 2013 eruption began with Surtseyan-type eruptions and cone formation in a shallow sea about 20m deep, about 400m southeast of the existing island of Nishinoshima.” , shared scientists from the University of Tokyo in a study published in The Geological Society of America.

“When a small islet was discovered by the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force on November 20, 2013, it measured 150 × 80 m.”

A “Surtseyian” eruption was named after an Icelandic island that similarly formed in 1963.

This happens when the older lava cools down into twists, bumps, tubes and grooves on the island’s surface, forcing the newer lava into the grooves before it has a chance to reach the island. water and cool.

HOW CAN RESEARCHERS PREDICT VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS?

According to Eric Dunham, associate professor in the School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences at Stanford University, “Volcanoes are complicated and there is currently no universally applicable way to predict a eruption. In all likelihood, there never will be.

However, there are indicators of increased volcanic activity, which researchers can use to help predict volcanic eruptions.

Researchers can track indicators such as:

  • Volcanic infrasound: When the lava lake rises in the crater of an open vented volcano, a sign of a potential eruption, the height or frequency of sounds generated by the magma tends to increase.
  • Seismic activity: Before an eruption, seismic activity in the form of small earthquakes and tremors almost always increases as magma moves through the volcano’s “plumbing system”.
  • Gas emission: As the magma approaches the surface and the pressure decreases, gases escape. Sulfur dioxide is one of the major components of volcanic gases, and increasing amounts of it are indicative of increasing amounts of magma near the surface of a volcano.
  • Soil deformation: Changes to the ground surface of a volcano (volcanic deformation) appear as swelling, sagging or cracking, which can be caused by magma, gas or other fluids (usually water) seeping up moving underground or by movements in the earth’s crust due to movement along fault lines. The swelling of a volcano can signal that magma has accumulated near the surface.

Source: United States Geological Survey


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